Remote Sensing and GIS Applied to the Landscape for the Environmental Restoration of Urbanizations by Means of 3D Virtual Reconstruction and Visualization (Salamanca, Spain)
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
The key focus of this paper is to establish a procedure that combines the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing in order to achieve simulation and modeling of the landscape impact caused by construction. The procedure should be easily and inexpensively developed. With the aid of 3D virtual reconstruction and visualization, this paper proposes that the technologies of remote sensing and GIS can be applied to the landscape for post-urbanization environmental
... nmental restoration. The goal is to create a rural zone in an urban development sector that integrates the residential areas and local infrastructure into the surrounding natural environment in order to measure the changes to the preliminary urban design. The units of the landscape are determined by means of two cartographic methods: (1) indirect, using the components of the landscape; and (2) direct methods, using the landscape's elements. The visual basins are calculated for the most transited by the population points, while establishing the zones that present major impacts for the urbanization of their landscape. Based on this, the different construction types are distributed (one-family houses, blocks of houses, etc.), selecting the types of plant masses either with ornamentals or integration depending on the zone; integrating water channels, creating a water channel in recirculation and green spaces and leisure time facilities. The techniques of remote sensing and GIS allow for the visualization and modeling of the urbanization in 3D, simulating the virtual reality of the infrastructure as well as the actions that need to be taken for restoration, thereby providing at a low cost an understanding of landscape integration before it takes place. and human factors, the establishment of measures for its protection, management and arrangement in accordance with the European standards was deemed necessary     . In Spain, the laws of soil, urbanism and environmental evaluation state that all constructions and buildings must adapt to the environment, taking the necessary measures to harmonize with the landscape and not distort it       . These parameters therefore require the establishment and cataloging of the units of the landscape at a regional level, in order to establish the directives of arrangement. For instance, any action that would affect soil in terms of its distribution, use, height, volume, color, composition, and materials must adapt to the surrounding landscape and preserve the vegetation as well as the natural slopes of the area. Through 3D visualization and an analysis of spatial distribution, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are helpful tools used in the design of urban areas     . They promote the evaluation and decision-making processes in the territorial planning of the project with the assistance of the inexpensive and easy-to-use process of Building Information Modeling (BIM), in addition to augmented reality tools found on the Google Earth free platform. In this paper, we discuss the BIM applied to the municipality of Zarapicos, north of the outskirts of the city of Salamanca. This region is of interest because it is undergoing construction of an urbanized settlement (hereafter Z5) and because there is already a great deal of construction, at varying degrees of completion, at a nearby golf course that shares infrastructure with Z5 ( Figure 1 ). The land area for the project Z5 is 57 ha and is surrounded by "solar fields" of photovoltaic plates to the north, east and west. The density of housing is 20 houses/ha, with 0.35 m 2 /m 2 as the coefficient of edificability. The general arrangement of the sector is as follows: (1) predominant use: residential one-family houses, hotels and community services; (2) compatible uses: collective housing and community services, gas stations, offices and solar power plants; and (3) prohibited uses: industrial and agricultural livestock. Thus, the primary planned usage is residential. The residential soil zones are divided into three types of housing: one-family row houses, one-family detached houses, and houses on open blocks (Figure 1 ). The use of urban furnishing is subdivided into different zones: community services and private use; sports facilities; and free public and road spaces. The zone allocated for industrial use will include a solar park. The areas dedicated to the community's private and public services will have swimming pools and other sports facilities.