Cognitive Strategies, Motivation to Learning, Levels of Wellbeing and Risk of Drop-out: An Empirical Longitudinal Study for Qualifying Ongoing University Guidance Services
Journal of Educational and Social Research
The paper concerns a longitudinal empirical study aiming to establish the relation between certain factors that facilitate (or sometimes hinder) academic achievement such as motivation to study, the cognitive strategies employed and the levels of wellness or distress expressed by indicators like anxiety and depression. It thus aimed to identify the role of these factors on the risk of student drop-out. The study was carried out on a sample of 68 self-selected students enrolled in various degree
... d in various degree courses at "Roma Tre" University, who had fully completed the three consecutive surveys geared to investigating their academic experience over a one-year period. The measurement tools used assessed: a) "drop-out intentions" (Hardre & Reeve Scale, 2003); b) "wellness/distress levels", (Adult Self-Report ASR; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2003); c) cognitive/study strategies (self-regulated knowledge; Manganelli, Alivernini, Mallia & Biasi, 2015); d) motivational aspects (Academic Motivation Scale AMS, validated in Italy by Alivernini and Lucidi (2008). The results show how that the drop-out risk is linked to high levels of depression or distress, poor competence in cognitive strategies adopted, and high levels of "Amotivation" and "External Motivation". On the basis of the above empirical evidence we propose starting up specific ongoing actions within the university guidance services in order to simultaneously improve wellbeing through emotional support, redefine decisions in the study path in line with personal motivation, and develop adequate cognitive strategies to devise a functional study method.