The development and use of phase-encoded functional MRI designs

Stephen A. Engel
2012 NeuroImage  
Phase-encoded designs advanced the early development of functional MRI, enabling the "killer app" of retinotopic mapping, which helped demonstrate fMRI's value to a skeptical scientific public. The design, also called "the traveling wave", remains in wide use today, due to its ability to easily measure neural activity in a parameterized set of experimental conditions. In phase-encoded designs, stimuli defined by a numerical parameter, for example visual eccentricity, are presented continuously
more » ... n the order specified by the parameter. The stimulus parameter that produces maximum response can be recovered from the timing of neural activity, i.e. its phase. From the outset, phase-encoded designs were used for two related, but complementary purposes: 1) to measure aggregate response properties of neurons in a voxel, for example the average visual field location of receptive fields, and 2) to segregate the set of voxels that corresponds to an organized cortical region, for example a retinotopically mapped visual area. This short review will cover the history and current uses of phase-encoded fMRI, while noting the ongoing tension in the field between the brain mapping and computational neuroimaging approaches.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.09.059 pmid:21985909 fatcat:zrzmvy3pdra2hil46rcktrr7zm