Detection and Characterization of Mononuclear Pd(I) Complexes [post]

Jia Luo, Nigam P. Rath, Liviu M. Mirica
2020 unpublished
<p>Palladium is a versatile transition metal used to catalyze a large number of chemical transformations, largely due to its ability to access various oxidation states (0, I, II, III, and IV). Among these oxidation states, Pd(I) is arguably the least studied, and while dinuclear Pd(I) complexes are more common, mononuclear Pd(I) species are very rare. Reported herein are spectroscopic studies of a series of Pd(I) intermediates generated by the chemical reduction of Pd(II) precursors supported
more » ... cursors supported by the tetradentate ligands 2,11-dithia[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane (N2S2) and <i>N,N'</i>-di-<i>tert</i>-butyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane (<sup>tBu</sup>N4): [(N2S2)Pd<sup>II</sup>(MeCN)]<sub>2</sub>(OTf)<sub>4</sub> (<b>1</b>), [(N2S2)Pd<sup>II</sup>Me]<sub>2</sub>(OTf)<sub>2</sub> (<b>2</b>), [(N2S2)Pd<sup>II</sup>Cl](OTf) (<b>3</b>), [(N2S2)Pd<sup>II</sup>X](OTf)<sub>2</sub> (X = tBuNC <b>4</b>, PPh<sub>3</sub> <b>5</b>), [(N2S2)Pd<sup>II</sup>Me(PPh<sub>3</sub>)](OTf) (<b>6</b>), and [(<sup>tBu</sup>N4)Pd<sup>II</sup>X<sub>2</sub>](OTf)<sub>2</sub> (X = MeCN <b>8</b>, tBuNC <b>9</b>). In addition, a stable Pd(I) dinuclear species, [(N2S2)Pd<sup>I</sup>(m-tBuNC)]<sub>2</sub>(ClO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> (<b>7</b>), was isolated upon the electrochemical reduction of <b>4</b> and structurally characterized. Moreover, the (<sup>tBu</sup>N4)Pd<sup>I</sup> intermediates, formed from the chemical reduction of [(<sup>tBu</sup>N4)Pd<sup>II</sup>X<sub>2</sub>](OTf)<sub>2</sub> (X = MeCN <b>8</b>, tBuNC <b>9</b>) complexes, were investigated by EPR spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and DFT calculations, and compared with the analogous (N2S2)Pd<sup>I</sup> systems. Upon probing the stability of Pd(I) species under various ligand environments (N2S2 and <sup>tBu</sup>N4), it is apparent that the presence of soft ligands such as tBuNC and PPh<sub>3</sub> significantly improves the stability of Pd(I) species, which should make the isolation of mononuclear Pd(I) species possible.</p>
doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12470945 fatcat:xrh5uywrrvguzo5x5i7t35m2rq