Immunological Aspects of the Tumor Microenvironment and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Gastric Carcinogenesis
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Infection with Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative, microaerophilic pathogen often results in gastric cancer in a subset of affected individuals. This explains why H. pylori is the only bacterium classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Several studies have pinpointed mechanisms by which H. pylori alters signaling pathways in the host cell to cause diseases. In this article, the authors have reviewed 234 studies conducted over a span of 18 years (2002–2020). The
... 2002–2020). The studies investigated the various mechanisms associated with gastric cancer induction. For the past 1.5 years, researchers have discovered new mechanisms contributing to gastric cancer linked to H. pylori etiology. Alongside alteration of the host signaling pathways using oncogenic CagA pathways, H. pylori induce DNA damage in the host and alter the methylation of DNA as a means of perturbing downstream signaling. Also, with H. pylori, several pathways in the host cell are activated, resulting in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), together with the induction of cell proliferation and survival. Studies have shown that H. pylori enhances gastric carcinogenesis via a multifactorial approach. What is intriguing is that most of the targeted mechanisms and pathways appear common with various forms of cancer.