Review of Li- Ion Battery Thermal Management Methods and Mitigating Techniques: 2/3 W Electric Vehicle for Tropical Climatic Condition

Kaushik Das
2020 International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology  
The quantum of transient heat generated and subsequent transient temperature is interdependent non linear functionality with several boundary conditions affecting the lithium ion battery pack performance with transient heat conduction under tangible operating and ambient temperature has a substantial short and long term impact on the electrical performance, life, reliability and safety of lithium-ion batteries. In the tropical condition, the variation in ambient temperature of lithium ion
more » ... f lithium ion battery pack for 2/3 wheeler is comparatively high and varies from + 25 o C to +55 o C because of higher atmospheric temperature as well as the batteries having less thermal evacuation system and ventilation because of lack of space and other constraints, thus exerting constantly higher but variable thermal stress like temperature gradients, thermal expansion or contraction and thermal shocks causes irreparable aging and degradation effect. It is essential to quantify the transient heat generation and temperature distribution of a battery cell, module, and pack during different operating conditions with methodologies for its proficient management and mitigating techniques. The demand for thermal management is multi prong to maintain the temperature of batteries within the safe operating temperature range zone and the non-uniform temperature distribution must remain within the range of the reference limit for the purpose of preventing the occurring of thermal runaway for favorable working performance. The objective of thermal management is to device suitable monitoring and measurement, designing the suitable thermal path to expel heat generated and suitable mechanism for prevention of breakdown. In this paper, the comparative transient temperature distributions across two identical battery packs(48V24Ah (15S4P) seriesparallel connected lithium-ion Ferro phosphate cell), one without any thermal management system and other with thermal management system are studied under various charging and discharging currents with various ambient temperature range, similar to tropical region for checking the effectiveness of designed thermal management system of the battery pack. Keywords: Lithium ion battery, Battery thermal management system, electric vehicle, heat dissipation. ISSN: 2321-9653; IC Value: 45.98; SJ Impact Factor: 7.429 Volume 8 Issue V May 2020-Available at ©IJRASET: All Rights are Reserved 1654 A sample survey of commercially available models reveals that the voltage range of a 2/3 wheeler battery electric vehicle hovers from 12V till 72V with ampere hour ranges between 12Ah till 200Ah with capacity of 2-10KW for 3 Wheeler and 1-6KWH for 2 wheelers. Because of several manufacturers in the segment, wide variety of battery pack is used with only constraint is the battery should be light weighted and should occupy least space. Several studies, research and development on various aspects of raise in temperature inside a cell or battery packs and several management and mitigation techniques are proposed and thus a suitable thermal management system is an absolute necessity to control the monitor and control the operating temperature and protect lithium ion batteries in battery packs for electric vehicles in case of any abnormalities from optimized parameters. Thermal management is a challenging topic for batteries in electric vehicles. The operational temperature range of electrical components, such as the battery, inverters and drive motors in electric vehicle are relatively small and its performance degrades drastically with fluctuation in temperature, compared to conventional propulsion systems which uses different thermal management methodologies and their components are more thermal stable and more robust towards temperature fluctuation. Thermal management is also safety pertinent because of the possible and unexpected derating effects which lead to reduced acceleration capabilities, as well as possible thermal events and pack runaway/venting. Electrochemical batteries, first invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800, now become the necessities in today's life. Electrochemical batteries classified into primary and secondary batteries. Primary batteries are which cannot be recharged, which is due to the irreversible electrochemical reactions occurring in the batteries. Zinc-carbon batteries are one of the examples of primary batteries. Secondary batteries, which are also called rechargeable batteries due to reversible electrochemical reactions that occur in the batteries. Although primary batteries still hold the major part of the commercial battery market, there are challenges associated with the use of primary batteries, including the generation of large amounts of unrecyclable materials, and the toxic components in the batteries that post environmental concerns. The development of secondary batteries rose rapidly in last few decades, including the development of nickel-metal hydride batteries, Lead Acid Batteries and lithium-ion batteries etc. Among these secondary batteries, lithium-ion batteries, which exhibit high energy density and excellent working performance, are leading the current secondary batteries usages which has high energy density (up to 705 Wh/L) and power density (up to 10,000 W/L) exhibit high capacity and great working performance. As rechargeable batteries, lithium-ion batteries serve as energy storage and power sources in numerous applications. The first commercial lithium-ion batteries, introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991, led a revolution of the energy storage market. A common lithium-ion battery consists of lithium compound-based cathode, carbon-based anode, electrolyte and separator. In general, the cathode materials are coated on an aluminum foil and the anode materials are coated on a copper foil, respectively. The aluminum and copper serve as the current collectors. A piece of porous polymer separator that is immersed in electrolyte and sandwiched between the anode and cathode prevents the shorting of the two electrodes. Lithium ion batteries are used as power sources to various electronic products, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems as well as in military and aerospace applications. One of the major limitations of lithium-ion batteries is operating temperature, which significantly impacts on the performance of lithium-ion batteries and also limits the application of lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, different ambient temperature results different and adverse effects. Accurate measurement of temperature inside lithium ion batteries and understanding the temperature effects are important for the proper battery management. Most of the temperature effects are related to chemical reactions occurring in the batteries and also materials used in the batteries and battery pack. Regarding chemical reactions, the relationship between the rate of chemical reactions and reaction temperature follows Arrhenius equation, and temperature variation can lead to the change of electrochemical reaction rate in batteries. Besides chemical reactions, the ionic conductivities of electrodes and electrolytes are also affected by temperature. Generally, the acceptable operating temperature region for lithium-ion batteries is −20°C~ +60°C and optimal ambient temperature range for lithium-ion batteries is 15°C~ 35°C. Once the temperature is out of these comfortable regions, lithium-ion batteries starts degrading fast with increased risk of facing safety problems that include fire and explosion. In general, impacts from temperature can be divided into two categories: low temperature effects and high temperature effects. Low temperature effects mostly take place in high-latitude country areas, such as Russia, Canada and Greenland Island and it affect the performance and life of lithium-ion batteries, especially for those used in Electric Vehicles. At these low operating temperatures, lithium-ion batteries will show slow chemical-reaction activity and charge-transfer velocity, which leads to the decrease of ionic conductivity in the electrolytes and lithium-ion diffusivity within the electrodes. Such decrease will result in the reduction of energy and power capability, and sometimes even performance failure. As compare to the low temperature effects that are mostly limited to the low temperature application environments, the high temperature effects happen in a much broad range of application environments, including not only high temperature environments
doi:10.22214/ijraset.2020.5270 fatcat:azmprzribnhbtjec7xoxxlbma4