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Swelling pressures calculated from diffuse double-layer theory previously had been experimentally verified for Na-montmoriUonite at clay concentrations above 10 percent, but published data at clay concentrations less than 5 percent consistently showed osmotic pressures much lower than the maximum of about 40 cm water calculated from theory. Swelling pressures of Na-montmorillonite in 4-5 percent orientated suspensions were therefore measured in an specially constructed osmometer in variousdoi:10.1346/ccmn.1958.0070124 fatcat:ttupotkzcraqvbamhwik4mqyfu