Fertility programs for lactating dairy cows, their physiological basis, and the factors that are critical for their success

J. P. N. Martins, J. R. Pursley
2016 Animal Reproduction  
Lactating dairy cows have unique reproductive responses compared to when they were heifers that result in distinctly different reproductive measurements and pregnancy outcomes that can be partially overcome with pharmacological strategies. These parameters include circulating progesterone and estradiol concentrations, ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum diameter, incidence of anovulation and double ovulations, time in estrus, pregnancies per artificial insemination and pregnancy losses.
more » ... ancy losses. Circulating concentrations of progesterone during diestrus are approximately half that in cows compared with heifers.
doi:10.21451/1984-3143-ar881 fatcat:hhf6wyflkfdb7ndrdbtyznld6q