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Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has been used in systemic treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). IFN-α has at least 14 subtypes, each of which has different biological activity. There have been reports that mRCC resistant to an IFN-α treatment responded to another IFN-α subtype. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of alternation of different IFN-α subtypes for mRCC that did not respond to initial IFN-α treatment. In our department and associated institutions,doi:10.2220/biomedres.33.323 pmid:23268955 fatcat:nzjznmhaabdcpers4ob2lekzxi