Fragmentation effects and genetic diversity of the key semidecidual forest species Metrodorea nigra in Southwestern Brazil
Genetics and Molecular Research
Studies of genetic diversity in plant species present in the remaining fragments of the Atlantic Forest are very important for understanding their resilience to such a degraded ecosystem. We analyzed the genetic diversity of 3 populations of the high-density understory species Metrodorea nigra St. Hill. (Rutaceae) located in forest remnants in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil (M13-Rib, BSQ-Rib, and FAC-Crav), by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)
... ence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers for conservation purposes. A total of 133 polymorphic loci were observed in 136 inter-simple sequence repeat loci (average of 17 per primer). The Nei genetic diversity (H E ) was relatively high considering all populations (0.31). The BSQ-Rib population exhibited the highest value (0.27), followed by the M13-Rib (0.26) and FAC-Crav (0.24) populations. The simple sequence repeat markers analyzed showed a high number of alleles (K = 104), with an average of 14.85 alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.516 and the average 3510 ©FUNPEC-RP www.funpecrp.com.br Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (2): 3509-3524 (2015) R.M.M. Filho et al. expected heterozygosity was 0.771, ranging from 0.688 (FAC-Crav) to 0.765 (BSQ-Rib). The fixation indexes showed positive and significant differences from zero for all sample sets, indicating inbreeding, which may have resulted from the species' mating patterns and the barochoric seed dispersal system of M. nigra. Both markers indicated differentiation among populations, with higher values observed for inter-simple sequence repeat markers. No significant differences between juvenile and adult generations in any of the fragments were observed, indicating the resilience of M. nigra to the effects of fragmentation and reduced habitat.