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Avascular necrosis (AVN) is defined as the cellular death of bone and bone marrow components due to the loss of blood supply, and associated with post-traumatic or non-traumatic events. AVN usually involves the epiphysis of a long bone, such as the femoral and humeral heads, which are susceptible to osteonecrosis. Many studies have been conducted but they were restricted to investigations of femoral head avascular necrosis. The presence of osteonecrosis in the proximal femur may impairdoi:10.4055/jkoa.2019.54.3.281 fatcat:rcmgsbo46jewzibm6ekzcugfzy