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Face recognition systems have been widely adopted for user authentication in security systems due to their simplicity and effectiveness. However, spoofing attacks, including printed photos, displayed photos, and replayed video attacks, are critical challenges to authentication, and these spoofing attacks allow malicious invaders to gain access to the system. This paper proposes two novel features for face liveness detection systems to protect against printed photo attacks and replayed attacksdoi:10.3390/sym9120305 fatcat:nicxnoirgjbb5bvgq2qqozdlca