Constituents of Cryptotaenia japonica Inhibit Melanogenesis via CREB- and MAPK-Associated Signaling Pathways in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells
Melanin plays an important role in protecting the skin against ultraviolet light and is responsible for skin color. However, overproduction of melanin is related to several skin disorders, such as age spots, freckles, café au lait spots, Becker's nevus and other hyperpigmentation syndromes. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (K7G) and tilianin, isolated from Cryptotaenia japonica, on melanogenesis and their mechanisms of action in murine B16
... in murine B16 melanoma cells. The α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanin production was significantly inhibited by K7G and tilianin in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of these compounds on the signaling pathway of melanogenesis were examined. K7G and tilianin downregulated the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and melanocyte-specific enzymes, i.e., tyrosinase and TRP1. These compounds also inhibited the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element binding protein (CREB) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these compounds increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but decreased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in B16 cells. Based on the above results, the anti-melanogenic effects of these compounds are caused by suppression of the MAPK signaling pathway through the down-regulation of α-MSH-induced CREB accumulation. This finding suggests that K7G and tilianin may be good candidates for further research to develop therapeutic agents for hyperpigmentation diseases.