Mycobacterial Virulence Factors: Surface-Exposed Lipids and Secreted Proteins

Angel Ly, Jun Liu
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
The clinically important Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) and related mycobacterial pathogens use various virulence mechanisms to survive and cause disease in their hosts. Several well-established virulence factors include the surface-exposed lipids in the mycobacterial outer membrane, as well as the Esx family proteins and the Pro-Glu (PE)/ Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) family proteins secreted by type VII secretion systems (T7SS). Five ESX T7SS exist in M. tb and three—EsxA secretion system-1 (ESX-1),
more » ... system-1 (ESX-1), ESX-3, and ESX-5—have been implicated in virulence, yet only the structures of ESX-3 and ESX-5 have been solved to date. Here, we summarize the current research on three outer membrane lipids—phthiocerol dimycocerosates, phenolic glycolipids, and sulfolipids—as well as the secretion machinery and substrates of three mycobacterial T7SS—ESX-1, ESX-3, and ESX-5. We propose a structural model of the M. tb ESX-1 system based on the latest structural findings of the ESX-3 and ESX-5 secretion apparatuses to gain insight into the transport mechanism of ESX-associated virulence factors.
doi:10.3390/ijms21113985 pmid:32498243 fatcat:7b4xqjqwcbg2xaaihvo2kianr4