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Eccentric distribution of stiffness, damping, and mass of a structure, and spatially non-uniform ground motion input to a long or large base mat of a structure are well-known causes of torsional response. We have discovered that the torque generated by horizontal displacement and perpendicular inertial force, which we call the Q-∆ effect, can be a cause of torsional response. We formulated the equation of motion of a single finite-size mass-linear elastic shear and torsion spring model anddoi:10.3389/fbuil.2018.00038 fatcat:2cpse5awtfdr5cljfe4zqnupk4