Multi-focus off-axis zone plates for X-ray free-electron laser experiments

Florian Döring, Benedikt Rösner, Manuel Langer, adam kubec, armin kleibert, Jörg Raabe, Carlos Vaz, Maxime Lebugle, Christian David
2020 Optica  
X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are paving the way towards new experiments in many scientific fields, such as ultrafast science, nonlinear spectroscopy, and coherent imaging. However, the strong intensity fluctuations inherent to the lasing process in these sources often lead to problems in signal normalization. In order to address this challenge, we designed, fabricated, and characterized diffractive x-ray optics that combine the focusing properties of a Fresnel zone plate with the
more » ... e with the beam-splitting capability of a grating in a single diffractive optical element. The possibility to split the incident beam into identical copies allows for direct shot-to-shot normalization of the sample signal, thereby greatly enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio in experiments with XFEL radiation. Here we propose two schemes for the design of such diffractive x-ray optical elements for splitting and focusing an incoming beam into up to three foci by merging a grating with a focusing zone plate. By varying the duty cycle of the grating or the relative shift of the Fresnel zone plate structure, we are able to tune the relative intensities of the different diffraction orders to achieve the desired splitting ratios. Experimental confirmation of the design is provided with soft x-ray light (540 eV) and shows a good agreement with calculations, confirming the suitability of this approach for XFEL experiments.
doi:10.1364/optica.398022 fatcat:h5r7lxdm4nhnjfwf77eliits4u