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X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are paving the way towards new experiments in many scientific fields, such as ultrafast science, nonlinear spectroscopy, and coherent imaging. However, the strong intensity fluctuations inherent to the lasing process in these sources often lead to problems in signal normalization. In order to address this challenge, we designed, fabricated, and characterized diffractive x-ray optics that combine the focusing properties of a Fresnel zone plate with thedoi:10.1364/optica.398022 fatcat:h5r7lxdm4nhnjfwf77eliits4u