Optimal Location of Subtrochanteric Osteotomy in Total Hip Arthroplasty for Crowe Type IV Developmental Dysplasia of Hip
Background When reconstructing a hip with developmental dysplasia and high dislocation, sub-trochanteric shortening osteotomy is typically needed for placing the acetabular component in the appropriate anatomical position. However, the procedure can result in complications such as non-union of the osteotomy. We evaluated the contact area and the coincidence rate between the proximal and distal fragments at different femoral osteotomy levels and lengths. We then determined the optimal location
... optimal location of subtrochanteric femoral shortening transverse osteotomy in patients with unilateral Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The consistency between the proximal and distal segments was assessed as a possible predictive indicator of the union at the osteotomy site. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 57 patients with unilateral Crowe type IV DDH who underwent X-ray imaging of both hip joints. We labelled the inner and outer diameters of the circular ring as N (mm) and M (mm), respectively. We defined the overlapped area between the proximal and distal ring as contact area S (mm 2 ), and the ratio of contact area to distal ring area as coincidence rate R. Results N varied from 9.8–15.2 mm and M varied from 20.7–24 mm, both demonstrated a decreasing trend in the proximal to distal direction. At osteotomy lengths ranging from 0.5–2 cm, there were no differences in S between the different levels of osteotomy in each group. At osteotomy lengths ≤ 2.5 cm, a significant higher coincidence rate was noted from 2 cm below the lesser trochanter to other positions below the level. At osteotomy lengths from 3–5.5 cm, a significantly higher coincidence rate was observed from the level of 1.5 cm below the lesser trochanter to other positions below the level. Conclusions Our findings suggest that femoral shortening transverse osteotomy at the optimal subtrochanteric level can predictably increase the contact area and coincidence rate, which may contribute to the union at the osteotomy site. Considering the stability of the prostheses, it appears appropriate that osteotomy location should be shifted slightly distally.