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The aim of this article is to analyse the directions and instruments of the innovation policy of the European Union, showing how its theoretical and structural underpinnings influence innovation, which is considered one of the main factors in enhancing the competitiveness of both enterprises and countries on the international market. The article also analyses how technology transfers and knowledge exchanges (spillovers) influence changes in international competiveness at both the micro-anddoi:10.15330/jpnu.4.3-4.9-20 fatcat:5lmid6rs5baibn5vlvv3qas7xq