Annona atemoya Leaf Extract Improves Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment by Preventing Hippocampal Cholinergic Dysfunction and Neuronal Cell Death
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
We explored the preventative effect of Annona atemoya leaf (AAL) extract on memory impairment in a scopolamine (SCO)-induced cognitive deficit mouse model. Fifty-eight mice were randomly divided into six groups and orally treated with AAL extract at (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or tacrine (TAC) for 21 days. Memory deficits were induced by a single injection of 1 mg/kg SCO (i.p.) and memory improvement was evaluated by using behavioral tests such as the passive avoidance task and Y-maze test. The
... -maze test. The levels of cholinergic functions, neuronal cell death, reactive oxygen species, and protein expression related to hippocampal neurogenesis were examined by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. The administration of AAL extract improved memory impairment according to increased spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze and step-through latency in passive avoidance test. AAL extract treatment increased the acetylcholine content, choline acetyltransferase, and acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus of SCO-stimulated mice. In addition, AAL extract attenuated oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death of hippocampal tissue. In terms of the regulatory mechanisms, AAL extract treatment reversed the SCO-induced decreases in the expression of Akt, phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings demonstrate that AAL extract has the ability to alleviate memory impairment through preventative effect on cholinergic system dysfunction and oxidative stress-related neuronal cell death in a SCO-induced memory deficit animal model. Overall, AAL may be a promising plant resource for the managing memory dysfunction due to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).