A Novel Application of Unsupervised Machine Learning and Supervised Machine Learning-Derived Radiomics in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
We aim to present an unsupervised machine learning application in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and evaluate whether supervised machine learning-derived radiomics features enable prediction of ACL rupture accurately. Sixty-eight patients were reviewed. Their demographic features were recorded, radiomics features were extracted, and the input dataset was defined as a collection of demographic features and radiomics features. The input dataset was automatically classified by the
... vised machine learning algorithm. Then, we used a supervised machine learning algorithm to construct a radiomics model. The t-test and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method were used for feature selection, random forest and support vector machine (SVM) were used as machine learning classifiers. For each model, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to evaluate model performance. In total, 5 demographic features were recorded and 106 radiomics features were extracted. By applying the unsupervised machine learning algorithm, patients were divided into 5 groups. Group 5 had the highest incidence of ACL rupture and left knee involvement. There were significant differences in left knee involvement among the groups. Forty-three radiomics features were extracted using t-test and 7 radiomics features were extracted using LASSO method. We found that the combination of LASSO selection method and random forest classifier has the highest sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and AUC. The 7 radiomics features extracted by LASSO method were potential predictors for ACL rupture. We validated the clinical application of unsupervised machine learning involving ACL rupture. Moreover, we found 7 radiomics features which were potential predictors for ACL rupture. The study indicated that radiomics could be a valuable method in the prediction of ACL rupture.