Reviews of Books
English Historical Review
variety of serious omissions and errors. Mithras is mixed np with the Druids. No attempt is made to bring out the distinctive features of Boman British worship. The deae moires, dismissed in a few lines, are actually ascribed to Italy and Africa. The real influence of the army on the matter is all but ignored. Christianity comes off as badly; the BOchester church is not even mentioned. Under these circumstances further criticism may seem idle, but I should like in conclusion to protest against
... to protest against the general attitude of Dr. Traill and his contributors towards Boman Britain. They tell us, of course, that the Boman occupation of the island left its inhabitants unwartike and enervated, though as a fact they resisted the barbarian longer than the provincials in the rest of the empire. Having repeated this common error, the result of Gildas's rhetoric, they proceed to magnify the Celts. The Boman occupation, they fell us, was an episode, a mere interval of arrested growth. Dr. Trafll gives the tone: ' Dim with the dust of centuries, yet still distinctly visible in dialect and tradition, in boundary lines of shire and diocese, and in the strange survivals of prehistoric feud, the tribal divisions of Celtio England can still be traced.' No one knows exactly the tribal divisions of Celtio England, and the boundaries of the English dioceses have varied a good deal, but the statement may pass as a bit of poetry. Unfortunately it is copied by Dr. Traill's contributors, whose Celtio patriotism would delight the heart of Morien. This is, of course, the new method of explaining the gulf between Boman Britain and Saxon England. That gulf is no longer ascribed to the fury of the Saxon conquest, but to the departure of the Bomans: they vanished, we are told, without a trace, leaving an uninfluenced Celtio element to resume its interrupted supremacy. This view may flatter the Celtio patriot, but it is not therefore true. It is more probable that Boman influences largely conditioned the Britain which the Bomans left and the Saxons found; it is probable, too, that some things Boman survived even the Saxon conquest. The kind and quantity of such survivals varied; they were more marked, perhaps, in agriculture than in matters of town life, of law, or of civic institutions, and they were more marked in certain districts than elsewhere. Our knowledge is too small to allow of a certain verdiot, but it may, at the present time, be permitted to suppose that while there were both Celtio and Boman survivals in a predominantly English England, the Boman or romanised elements were not the least extensive or important. F. HAVEBPIBLD. The Early Collection of Canons known as the ' Hibernensis.' Two ununnnished papers. By the late HENEY BRADHHAW, Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, and University Librarian. (Cambridge: University Press. 1898.) FEW subjects involve the inquirer in more confusion than the attempt to thread the mazes of the various forms of the early canon law of the western church. If a certain amount of rough agreement reigned as to the material-the Greek councils and the papal decretals (to which were very usually added a collection of African canons), combined with the local synods of each country-there was none, at least until the despatch of the at University of Birmingham on August 28, 2015 http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/ Downloaded from at University of Birmingham on August 28, 2015 http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/ Downloaded from * The manuscripts fall into three groups, here referred to by their chief representative*-Cambridge University Library, Ff. 1. 37; Harley, 8860; and Vatican, 1964. The Yatiean MS. gives Mark as the author; the ascription to Nennius is confined to ths Cambridge, that to Gildas to the Harleian group.