Learning Mode and Strategic Concept for the 4th Industrial Revolution

Fumio Kodama
2018 Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market and Complexity  
Compared to information technology (IT) revolutions, which are characterized by disruptive innovations, the innovations required for the 4th Industrial Revolution will be characterized by the cumulativeness of the innovations. Therefore, we will need new modes of technological learning and new strategic concepts. The IT revolution can be divided into two parts: system integration and component supplying. Notice that all IT giants such as Apple and Google emerged only after Intel emerged as the
more » ... ominant microprocessor unit (MPU) supplier. Therefore, we can ascertain that Intel emerged as a dominant MPU supplier by accommodating the different specifications made by Japanese customers in different industrial sectors. Thus, we will come to the concept of learning-by-accommodation as the dominant learning mode of IT module supplying, while the aforementioned IT giants implemented the mode of learning-by integration. The 4th Industrial Revolution will be characterized by technological evolutions rather than by disruptive innovations. They can be also decomposed into module supplying and the system integration. As to the mode of learning in the modules, we will find that the mode of learning will be prevalent in the same manner as IT module supplying, but in a more pre-emptive way. As for the feedback loops of the system integration, we will divide them into edge computing and the overall system solution. As for the edge solution, it is possible for latecomers to make a leapfrogging. In this context, we will make an analysis on the Chinese development of the "capacitor trolley bus" and come to a totally different mode of learning in the edge solution. We will name this mode "learning-by-porting", using the terminology derived from the analysis of the design rules of a modular structure. By assuming that an overall feedback loop consists of a hierarchical structured collection of edge solutions, we can conclude that the overall solution is developed by multiple applications of the learning-by-porting of edge solutions. Additionally, the total system is a hierarchical structure, thus, a strategy toward the realization of the 4th industrial revolution will be a multilayered porting strategy.
doi:10.3390/joitmc4030032 fatcat:nfootuz6p5ggti7xudzu3rzusy