Numerical Exploration of Kaldorian Macrodynamics: Enhanced Stability and Predominance of Period Doubling and Chaos with Flexible Exchange Rates
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society
We explore a discrete Kaldorian macrodynamic model of an open economy with flexible exchange rates, focusing on the effects of variation of the model parameters, the speed of adjustment of the goods marketα, and the degree of capital mobilityβ. We determine by a numerical grid search method the stability region in parameter space and find that flexible rates cause enhanced stability of equilibrium with respect to variations of the parameters. We identify the Hopf-Neimark bifurcation curve and
... rcation curve and the flip bifurcation curve, and find that the period doubling cascades which leads to chaos is the dominant behavior of the system outside the stability region, persisting to large values ofβ. Cyclical behavior of noticeable presence is detected for some extreme values of a state parameter. Bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent diagrams are computed illustrating the complex dynamics involved. Examples of attractors and trajectories are presented. The effect of the speed of adaptation of the expected rate is also briefly discussed. Finally, we explore a special model variation incorporating the "wealth effect" which is found to behave similarly to the basic model, contrary to the model of fixed exchange rates in which incorporation of this effect causes an entirely different behavior.