ADAM 12 Cleaves Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Correlates with Cancer Status and Stage
Roopali Roy, Ulla M. Wewer, David Zurakowski, Susan E. Pories, Marsha A. Moses
Journal of Biological Chemistry
ADAM 12 is a member of a family of disintegrincontaining metalloproteases that have been implicated in a variety of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, and cancer. We purified ADAM 12 from the urine of breast cancer patients via Q-Sepharose anion exchange and gelatin-Sepharose affinity chromatography followed by protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Four peptides were identified that spanned the amino acid sequence
... of ADAM 12. Immunoblot analysis using ADAM 12-specific antibodies detected an ϳ68-kDa band identified as the mature form of ADAM 12. To characterize catalytic properties of ADAM 12, full-length ADAM 12-S was expressed in COS-7 cells and purified. Substrate specificity studies demonstrated that ADAM 12-S degrades gelatin, type IV collagen, and fibronectin but not type I collagen or casein. Gelatinase activity of ADAM 12 was completely abrogated by zinc chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA and was partially inhibited by the hydroxamate inhibitor Marimastat. Endogenous matrix metalloprotease inhibitor TIMP-3 inhibited activity. To validate our initial identification of this enzyme in human urine, 117 urine samples from breast cancer patients and controls were analyzed by immunoblot. The majority of samples from cancer patients were positive for ADAM 12 (67 of 71, sensitivity 0.94) compared with urine from controls in which ADAM 12 was detected with significantly lower frequency. Densitometric analyses of immunoblots demonstrated that ADAM 12 protein levels were higher in urine from breast cancer patients than in control urine. In addition, median levels of ADAM 12 in urine significantly increased with disease progression. These data demonstrate for the first time that ADAM 12 is a gelatinase, that it can be detected in breast cancer patient urine, and that increased urinary levels of this protein correlate with breast cancer progression. They further support the possibility that detection of urinary ADAM 12 may prove useful in the development of noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic tests for breast and perhaps other cancers. 1 The abbreviations used are: ADAM, a disintegrin and metalloprotease; ADAM 12-L, membrane-anchored long form of ADAM 12; ADAM 12-S, secreted form of ADAM-12; ADH, atypical ductal hyperplasia; LCIS, lobular carcinoma in situ; DCIS, ductal carcinoma in situ; IBC, locally invasive breast cancer; ROC, receiver operating characteristic; MALDI-TOF, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight; CHAPS, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic acid; EGF, epidermal growth factor; MMP, matrix metalloprotease; ECM, extracellular matrix; TIMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases; IGFBP, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein.