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A growing set of studies suggests that our ability to infer, and reason about, mental states is supported by the assumption that agents maximize utilities -the rewards they attain minus the costs they incur. This assumption enables observers to work backwards from agents' observed behavior to their underlying beliefs, preferences, and competencies. Intuitively, however, agents may have incomplete, uncertain, or wrong beliefs about what they want. More formally, agents try to maximize theirdoi:10.1037/xge0000345 pmid:28714711 fatcat:mj3lvsbio5chdbqz6cebm5qiui