Comportamento de condensados de Bose-Einstein aprisionados, na presença de vórtices e modos coletivos [thesis]

Rafael Poliseli Teles
The extension of quantum phenomena into macroscopic scales is responsible for a whole class of effects such as superconductivity, superfluidity, and Bose-Einstein condensation, which played central roles in physics throughout the last century. The production of the first Bose-Einstein condensates made possible the realization of experiments involving macroscopic quantum phenomena with an unprecedented level of control of the external parameters. The persistent currents in condensates are
more » ... densates are intimately related to the nucleation of quantized vortices, which are topological defects as response to transference of quanta of angular momentum. A conventional method for generation of such defects consists in confining the condensed atomic cloud into a rotating trap. It turns out that, for angular velocities higher than a critical value, vortex states become energetically favorable, thus inducing the creation of quantized vortices. Experimental realizations of condensed alkali-metal atoms confined by more general time-dependent potentials allowed the observation not only of vortex lattices but also of quantum turbulence.
doi:10.11606/t.76.2015.tde-16062015-142359 fatcat:qzbcgcdtxzdeticzbrt5clrr6u