Involvement of Extracellular Vesicles in Vascular-Related Functions in Cancer Progression and Metastasis
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
The primary cause of mortality among patients with cancer is the progression of the tumor, better known as cancer invasion and metastasis. Cancer progression involves a series of biologically important steps in which the cross-talk between cancer cells and the cells in the surrounding environment is positioned as an important issue. Notably, angiogenesis is a key tumorigenic phenomenon for cancer progression. Cancer-related extracellular vesicles (EVs) commonly contribute to the modulation of a
... the modulation of a microenvironment favorable to cancer cells through their function of cell-to-cell communication. Vascular-related cells such as endothelial cells (ECs) and platelets activated by cancer cells and cancer-derived EVs develop procoagulant and proinflammatory statuses, which help excite the tumor environment, and play major roles in tumor progression, including in tumor extravasation, tumor cell microthrombi formation, platelet aggregation, and metastasis. In particular, cancer-derived EVs influence ECs, which then play multiple roles such as contributing to tumor angiogenesis, loss of endothelial vascular barrier by binding to ECs, and the subsequent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, i.e., extracellular matrix remodeling. Thus, cell-to-cell communication between cancer cells and ECs via EVs may be an important target for controlling cancer progression. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the involvement of EVs, especially exosomes derived from cancer cells, in EC-related cancer progression.