Mixing of dust and NH3 observed globally over anthropogenic dust sources

P. Ginoux, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, O. Dubovik, N. C. Hsu, M. Van Damme
2012 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
<p><strong>Abstract.</strong> The global distribution of dust column burden derived from MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products is compared to NH<sub>3</sub> column burden retrieved from IASI infrared spectra. We found similarities in their spatial distributions, in particular their hot spots are often collocated over croplands and to a lesser extent pastures. Globally, we found 22% of dust burden collocated with NH<sub>3</sub>, with only 1% difference between land-use databases. This confirms the
more » ... ortance of anthropogenic dust from agriculture. Regionally, the Indian subcontinent has the highest amount of dust mixed with NH<sub>3</sub> (26%), mostly over cropland and during the pre-monsoon season. North Africa represents 50% of total dust burden but accounts for only 4% of mixed dust, which is found over croplands and pastures in Sahel and the coastal region of the Mediterranean. In order to evaluate the radiative effect of this mixing on dust optical properties, we derive the mass extinction efficiency for various mixtures of dust and NH<sub>3</sub>, using AERONET sunphotometers data. We found that for dusty days the coarse mode mass extinction efficiency decreases from 0.62 to 0.48 m<sup>2</sup> g<sup>−1</sup> as NH<sub>3</sub> burden increases from 0 to 40 mg m<sup>−2</sup>. The fine mode extinction efficiency, ranging from 4 to 16 m<sup>2</sup> g<sup>−1</sup>, does not appear to depend on NH<sub>3</sub> concentration or relative humidity but rather on mineralogical composition and mixing with other aerosols. Our results imply that a significant amount of dust is already mixed with ammonium salt before its long range transport. This in turn will affect dust lifetime, and its interactions with radiation and cloud properties.</p>
doi:10.5194/acp-12-7351-2012 fatcat:lwv2navztzfrnaowrn3k42lhxe