The square lattice Ising model on the rectangle I: finite systems

Alfred Hucht
2017 Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical  
The partition function of the square lattice Ising model on the rectangle with open boundary conditions in both directions is calculated exactly for arbitrary system size $L\times M$ and temperature. We start with the dimer method of Kasteleyn, McCoy & Wu, construct a highly symmetric block transfer matrix and derive a factorization of the involved determinant, effectively decomposing the free energy of the system into two parts,
more » ... ^\mathrm{res}(L,M)$, where the residual part $F_\mathrm{strip}^\mathrm{res}(L,M)$ contains the nontrivial finite-$L$ contributions for fixed $M$. It is given by the determinant of a $\frac{M}{2}\times \frac{M}{2}$ matrix and can be mapped onto an effective spin model with $M$ Ising spins and long-range interactions. While $F_\mathrm{strip}^\mathrm{res}(L,M)$ becomes exponentially small for large $L/M$ or off-critical temperatures, it leads to important finite-size effects such as the critical Casimir force near criticality. The relations to the Casimir potential and the Casimir force are discussed.
doi:10.1088/1751-8121/aa5535 fatcat:rhuxfumydfaivp5pd2ywyhqity