Quality Characteristics of Bread Produced from Wheat and White Kidney Bean Composite Flour
European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety
Aim: To evaluate the Quality characteristics of Bread produced from Wheat and Kidney Bean composite flour blend. Study Design: Composite bread was produced from wheat and kidney bean flour of various proportions (10, 15, 20 and 25%). Proximate (protein, ash, moisture, fibre, fat and carbohydrate) composition, functional (Bulk density, foaming capacity, swelling index, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity) properties and sensory (appearance, taste, flavour, texture and overall
... xture and overall acceptability) attributes were determined. Results: Bread was produced from wheat and kidney beans composite (B, C, D and E) flour. The bread samples were subjected to physical, proximate and sensory analyses. The functional properties of the composite flour blends were also determined. The functional properties shows a significant (P<0.05) difference in water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and swelling index with values ranged from 1.10 – 0.60 ml/g, 1.03 – 0.76 ml/g and 5.92 – 2.89 ml/g respectively. The bulk density and foaming capacity shows significant (P<0.05) difference with its values ranging from 0.90 – 0.97 g/ml and 32.69 – 26.94 cm3 respectively as kidney beans flour increases. The result of the physical properties shows significant (P<0.05) difference in dough height, proofing rate, loaf volume, specific volume, baking loss and oven spring with values ranging from 1.169 – 3.39 cm3, 0.01 – 0.02 cm3/min, 0.79 – 1.19 cm3, 0.32 – 0.48 cm3/g, 1.59 – 2.79 and 101.58 – 102.79 respectively while the loaf weight ranged from 243.21 – 246.09 g. proximate composition of the sample were also analyzed and the result shows significant (P<0.05) difference in crude protein, moisture content, ash, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate with values ranging from 8.36 – 10.47%, 22.18 – 23.28%, 0.97 – 1.38%, 11.80 – 12.94%, 0.29 – 0.59% and 51.33 – 57.10% respectively. The results of the sensory scores shows a significant (P<0.05) difference in all the samples analyzed. However, sample C with 15% kidney beans flour was most preferred. Conclusion: It could be concluded that increased in kidney beans flour addition in the production of composite bread had significant (P<0.05) impact on the proximate, physical and organoleptic properties of the bread. Hence, 85% wheat to 15% kidney bean flour should be used in bread making.