Graphene-Modified Composites and Electrodes and Their Potential Applications in the Electro-Fenton Process
In recent years, graphene-based materials have been identified as an emerging and promising new material in electro-Fenton, with the potential to form highly efficient metal-free catalysts that can be employed in the removal of contaminants from water, conserving precious water resources. In this review, the recent applications of graphene-based materials in electro-Fenton are described and discussed. Initially, homogenous and heterogenous electro-Fenton methods are briefly introduced,
... ntroduced, highlighting the importance of the generation of H2O2 from the two-electron reduction of dissolved oxygen and its catalysed decomposition to produce reactive and oxidising hydroxy radicals. Next, the promising applications of graphene-based electrodes in promoting this two-electron oxygen reduction reaction are considered and this is followed by an account of the various graphene-based materials that have been used successfully to give highly efficient graphene-based cathodes in electro-Fenton. In particular, graphene-based composites that have been combined with other carbonaceous materials, doped with nitrogen, formed as highly porous aerogels, three-dimensional materials and porous gas diffusion electrodes, used as supports for iron oxides and functionalised with ferrocene and employed in the more effective heterogeneous electro-Fenton, are all reviewed. It is perfectly clear that graphene-based materials have the potential to degrade and mineralise dyes, pharmaceutical compounds, antibiotics, phenolic compounds and show tremendous potential in electro-Fenton and other advanced oxidation processes.