Towards a Better Understanding of the Removal of Carbamazepine by Ankistrodesmus braunii: Investigation of Some Key Parameters
Nowadays, water pollution by pharmaceuticals is a major issue that needs an urgent solution, as these compounds, even when found at trace or ultra-trace levels, could have harmful effects on organisms. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a pharmaceutical product that is detected as a micropollutant in many water resources. Different treatment methods were lately employed for the removal of CBZ, which are often cheap but inefficient or efficient but expensive. Yet, there are limited available studies on the
... ble studies on the elimination of this molecule by algae despite their well-known highly adaptive abilities. In this study, the biological treatment of CBZ was carried out using the green microalgae, Ankistrodesmus braunii (A. braunii), which has been reported to be particularly resistant to CBZ toxicity in the literature. The respective effects of the culture medium, the initial inoculum, and CBZ concentrations were studied on CBZ removal. Lastly, the mechanism of CBZ elimination by A. braunii was investigated. The presented data clearly demonstrates that the presence of this molecule did not completely repress A. braunii growth or the ability of these algae to remove CBZ; after 60 days of incubation, the highest percentage of CBZ elimination achieved was 87.6%. Elimination was more successful in Bold's basal medium than in proteose peptone medium. Finally, the removal mechanism was also investigated to provide a better understanding of the transformation mechanism of this molecule. It was shown that the main removal mechanism was the bioaccumulation of CBZ by A. braunii cells, but the biotransformation of the initial CBZ into metabolites was also observed.