Miselni modeli cepljenja, zaupanje v zdravstvo in odnos staršev do cepljenja otrok

Bojan Gjorgjievski
2016 Psihološka Obzorja  
Povzetek: Na področju zdravstva se v zadnjih letih pojavljajo mnoga protislovna pojmovanja, tudi tista, povezana z odnosom do cepljenja. Del staršev na osnovi svojega razumevanja pojava cepljenju nasprotuje. Namen raziskave je bil primerjati miselne modele laikov s strokovnimi modeli in preučiti povezanost miselnih modelov cepljenja ter zaupanja v zdravnike in sistem zdravstva s stališči staršev do cepljenja otrok. Pri tem smo upoštevali demografske značilnosti staršev in medkulturne razlike
more » ... kulturne razlike med starši iz Slovenije in Makedonije. Zanimala nas je tudi vloga obveznega in neobveznega cepljenja, saj se vedenjska namera pri neobveznem cepljenju pokaže mnogo jasneje. Metodološko je raziskava miselnih modelov temeljila na pristopu Morgana, Fischhoffa, Bostroma in Atmana (2002), ki ima tri faze: (1) pridobivanje strokovnih miselnih modelov, (2) pridobivanje miselnih modelov laikov (tj. staršev) in (3) primerjava obojnih miselnih modelov. Strokovni modeli cepljenja so bili pridobljeni pri petih zdravnikih iz Slovenije in petih zdravnikih iz Makedonije, laični pa v strukturiranih intervjujih s 33 starši iz Slovenije in 30 iz Makedonije. Na osnovi primerjav strokovnih in laičnih miselnih modelov lahko ugotovimo, da se miselni modeli cepljenja pri starših enoletnih otrok razlikujejo od strokovnih miselnih modelov. Večina intervjuvanih staršev, tako makedonskih kot slovenskih, je tudi odgovorila, da bolj zaupa zdravniku kot sistemu zdravstva, in sicer predvsem zaradi v glavnem dobrih izkušenj z izbranim pediatrom. Pri nekaterih slovenskih starših smo opazili težnjo po identifikaciji obveznega cepljenja s prisilo. Ključne besede: miselni modeli, cepljenje, zaupanje, demografske značilnosti, medkulturne razlike Abstract: Many contradictory notions have been appearing in the area of health care in recent years, including those related to attitudes towards vaccination. On the basis of their understanding of the phenomenon some parents oppose to the vaccination. The purpose of this study was to compare mental models of laymen with expert models and examine the correlation of the mental models of vaccination and the trust in doctors and healthcare system with the parental attitudes on childhood vaccination. In doing so, we have considered the demographic characteristics of the parents and cultural differences between parents from Slovenia and Macedonia. We were also interested in the role of compulsory and optional vaccination, because in the latter the behavioral intention is expressed more clearly. The methods used in our study of mental models was based on the approach of Morgan, Fischhoff, Bostrom and Atman (2002) which has three phases: (1) obtaining expert mental models, (2) getting mental models of the laymen (e.g., parents) and (3) comparison of both mental models. Expert models of vaccination were obtained from five doctors from Slovenia and five doctors from Macedonia. Laymen models of vaccination were obtained in structured interviews with 33 parents from Slovenia and 30 from Macedonia. Based on comparisons of expert and laymental models it can be concluded that the mental models of vaccination from parents of one-year old children differ from expert mental models. Most parents, both Macedonian and Slovenian, have also responded that they have greater confidence in the doctors rather than the healthcare system, mainly due to positive experiences with the selected pediatrician. In some Slovenian parents, a tendency to identify compulsory vaccination with force was noticed.
doi:10.20419/2016.25.456 fatcat:gqfeaiikhjbjhko3mxxdv2fbxu