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In this paper, an optimal control strategy for a four-wheel-independently-actuated electric vehicle (FWIA EV) is proposed to improve vehicle dynamics stability and handling performance. The proposed scheme has a hierarchical structure composed of an upper and a lower controller. The desired longitudinal and lateral forces and yaw moment are determined based on the sliding-mode control (SMC) scheme in the upper controller, which takes the longitudinal and lateral velocity and the yaw rate asdoi:10.3390/en10070947 fatcat:z5va4vb6ybbs5hsqa7rvjz4d7a