The Influence of Regular Aerobic Interval Training on Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness amongst Hypertensive Subjects
Biology and Medicine
Regular physical exercise appears to potentiate the effects of pharmacological treatment for arterial hypertension. As such, regular exercise is recommended as an adjuvant treatment in hypertensive subjects by both European and American guidelines. Crucially, however, there are no precise recommendations on the type of physical exercise and how it should be instituted. Aerobic Interval Training (AIT) is a new and novel type training that appears to be beneficial to patients suffering from
... uffering from various medical conditions. There is a distinct lack of evidence on how it affects arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a 5 month period of regular AIT on blood pressure, carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and applanation tonometry indexes in patients previously treated pharmacologically for mild or moderate arterial hypertension. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 hypertensive subjects (30 males, 30 females) (age 54.45 ± 8.52 years) who had previously undergone at least 2 years of combined anti-hypertensive therapy and who had well controlled hypertension, i.e. below 140/90 mmHg. Their pharmacological treatment did not change during the study period. The study group was randomly divided into 2 subgroups. In the first group (G1), AIT was undertaken for 5 months (40 professional AIT sessions performed two times per week in 50 minute sessions) and followed a specially developed program. The second control group (G2), did not attend any training sessions but received medical advice on how to maintain physical activity as outlined by JNC hypertension guidelines. During the baseline visit and then at five months (final visit), both groups underwent testing for office BP, PWV and applanation tonometry indexes using the SphygmoCor® device and the Complior® device. Results: During the baseline visit, we found no significant difference between the two groups in the age of the subjects, their office SBP, DBP, PWV and applanation tonometry indexes. After five months of regular AIT, the subjects in G1 were found to have an office SBP of 132.8 ± 6.1 mmHg (vs. 128.9 ± 5.9 mmHg, p<0.05), a DBP of 80.5 ± 4.1 mmHg (vs. 77.8 ± 2.3 mmHg, p<0.05), PWV Complior® of 10.3 ± 1.18 m/s (vs. 9.26 ± 1.11 m/s, p<0.05), and a PWV SphygmoCor® of 8.37 ± 1.03 mmHg (vs. 7.48 ± 0.97 mmHg, p<0.05). Moreover we noticed significant changes in applanation tonometry indexes, such as central SBP, central PP, central and peripheral AIx (all p<0.05) after 5 month. In the G2 group, SBP, DBP, applanation tonometry indexes and PWV did not significantly change between measurements taken at baseline and during the final visit. Conclusion: A relatively short period of regular AIT significantly decreased blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and most applanation tonometry indexes in hypertensive subjects also undertaking pharmacological treatment. Kameczura et al., Biol Med (Aligarh) 2016, 8:2 http://dx.BLM, an open access journal Volume 8 • Issue 2 • 1000269 document "Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors" . Biology and Medicine Hypertension has been acknowledged as one of the most important risk factors for stroke, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and kidney failure     . Treatment aims as described by the ESC/ESH are centered on pharmacological treatments, however, they also focus on the reduction of modifiable risk factors contributing to hypertension. These modifiable risk factors include tobacco use, an unhealthy diet, and the lack of physical activity. In regards to treating hypertension, these risk factors are the focus of non-pharmacological interventions  and have an important role in reducing mortality and the progression of the effects of hypertension  .