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The basic implications of changes in delivery pressure on system energy use and cost, on leakage, excess pressure, and environmental impacts are explored. An analytical expression is first developed to characterize the primary relationships between energy use, leakage and pressure for a simple pipe segment. Then, two more realistic case studies, based on varying versions of the Anytown network, are considered. The results indicate that energy use responds more to changes in the deliverydoi:10.6084/m9.figshare.3805497.v1 fatcat:fjuj3dhkwrhwtc4c5j2agn7t4a