Stakes and solutions for in-plane sheet-metal formability assessment
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
In body design, Finite Element Analysis becomes an unavoidable step in optimizing forming processes to ensure the feasibility of a specific designed shape. Different failure criteria exist but the Forming Limit Diagram remains the most used criterion. It can be built in a wide variety of forms but the most usual one is composed only of a Forming Limit Curve (FLC) which represents the onset of localized necking limit of sheet metal. FLC is determined experimentally by standardized Nakajima or
... ized Nakajima or Marciniak tests. However, both present lots of roadblocks in the accurate determination of product formability limits due to the use of counter-blanks, no linear strain paths and because they are not adapted for high ductility steels. Tensile tests were performed in the past to determine the left hand side of the FLCs. They were not included into the ISO 12004-2 standard because of technical reasons although they present lots of advantages (frictionless, no curvature effect and planar configuration). Now, thanks to the current advanced technologies and tools, these issues are overcome. In this paper, the advantages of tensile tests compared to Nakajima or Marciniak ones are briefly discussed. The design and conceptualization of specific jaws to perform plane strain tensile tests on AHSS are presented. A wide range of AHSS was characterized through plane strain tensile tests and results were compared to formability limits determined by the usual practice using Nakajima tests. Different evaluation strategies were used to determine the maximum formability: the position dependent method, the time dependent one and close to fracture.