Serum Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Remodelling Reflect Extra-Valvular Cardiac Damage in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
In patients with aortic stenosis (AS), a novel staging classification of extra-valvular left and right heart damage with prognostic relevance was introduced in 2017. The aim of the study was to evaluate the biomarkers of cardiovascular tissue remodelling in relation to this novel staging classification. Patients were categorized according to the novel staging classification into stages 0 to 4. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), B
... and C domain containing tenascin-C (B+ Tn-C, C+ Tn-C), the ED-A and ED-B domain containing fibronectin (ED-A+ Fn, ED-B+ Fn), endothelin 1 (ET-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were determined in serum by ELISA. There were significantly decreased serum levels of MMP-9 and increased levels of B+ Tn-C and C+ Tn-C when comparing stages 0 and 1 with stage 2, with no further dynamics in stages 3 and 4. In contrast, for TIMP-1, C+ Tn-C, ED-A+ Fn, ET-1 and NGAL, significantly increased serum levels could be detected in stages 3 and 4 compared to both stages 0 and 1 and stage 2. ED-A+ Fn and ET-1 could be identified as independent predictors of the presence of stage 3 and/or 4. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study identifying novel serum biomarkers differentially reflecting the patterns of left and right heart extra-valvular damage in patients suffering from AS. Our findings might indicate a more precise initial diagnosis and risk stratification.