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Photonic crystals of one-or twodimensional periodicity can be used to achieve three-dimensional photon confinement in dielectric waveguides with modal volumes of the order of a cubic half-wavelength. Since photonic crystals of low-dimensional periodicity do not have full three-dimensional bandgaps, the microcavities undergo increasing radiation losses with decreasing modal volumes. High-Q resonant modes can be generated by reducing the strength of the photon confinement. Increasingly, largerdoi:10.1049/ip-opt:19982467 fatcat:lfz2a7i6mjbcbk5kjwih6rncnq