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In friction stir welding (FSW), many defects (such as kissing bond, incomplete penetration, and weak connection) easily occur at the root of the welded joint. Based on the Levy–Mises yield criterion of the Zener–Hollomon thermoplastic constitutive equation, a 3D thermal–mechanical coupled finite element model was established. The material flow behavior and the stress field at the root area of a 6 mm thick 2024-T3 aluminum alloy FSW joint were studied. The influence of pin length on the rootdoi:10.3390/met10070913 fatcat:44nfaq7zfjftbgnw2lvomwut6y