Reactive Oxygen Species in Venous Thrombosis
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have physiological roles as second messengers, but can also exert detrimental modifications on DNA, proteins and lipids if resulting from enhanced generation or reduced antioxidant defense (oxidative stress). Venous thrombus (DVT) formation and resolution are influenced by ROS through modulation of the coagulation, fibrinolysis, proteolysis and the complement system, as well as the regulation of effector cells such as platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes,
... , erythrocytes, neutrophils, mast cells, monocytes and fibroblasts. Many conditions that carry an elevated risk of venous thrombosis, such as the Antiphospholipid Syndrome, have alterations in their redox homeostasis. Dietary and pharmacological antioxidants can modulate several important processes involved in DVT formation, but their overall effect is unknown and there are no recommendations regarding their use. The development of novel antioxidant treatments that aim to abrogate the formation of DVT or promote its resolution will depend on the identification of targets that enable ROS modulation confined to their site of interest in order to prevent off-target effects on physiological redox mechanisms. Subgroups of patients with increased systemic oxidative stress might benefit from unspecific antioxidant treatment, but more clinical studies are needed to bring clarity to this issue.