Angiopoietin-4-dependent venous maturation and fluid drainage in the peripheral retina

Harri Elamaa, Minna Kihlström, Emmi Kapiainen, Mika Kaakinen, Ilkka Miinalainen, Symantas Ragauskas, Marc Cerrada-Gimenez, Satu Mering, Marjut Nätynki, Lauri Eklund
2018 eLife  
The maintenance of fluid homeostasis is necessary for function of the neural retina; however, little is known about the significance of potential fluid management mechanisms. Here, we investigated angiopoietin-4 (Angpt4, also known as Ang3), a poorly characterized ligand for endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2, in mouse retina model. By using genetic reporter, fate mapping, and in situ hybridization, we found Angpt4 expression in a specific sub-population of astrocytes at the site where
more » ... at the site where venous morphogenesis occurs and that lower oxygen tension, which distinguishes peripheral and venous locations, enhances Angpt4 expression. Correlating with its spatiotemporal expression, deletion of Angpt4 resulted in defective venous development causing impaired venous drainage and defects in neuronal cells. In vitro characterization of angiopoietin-4 proteins revealed both ligand-specific and redundant functions among the angiopoietins. Our study identifies Angpt4 as the first growth factor for venous-specific development and its importance in venous remodeling, retinal fluid clearance and neuronal function.
doi:10.7554/elife.37776 fatcat:5czzx7g5mna5pajpgmbvvjtsmy