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The effect of frictional and adhesion forces attributed to slurry particles on the quality of copper surfaces was experimentally investigated during copper chemical mechanical planarization process. The highest frictional force of 9 Kgf and adhesion force of 5.83 nN were observed in a deionized water-based alumina slurry. On the other hand, the smallest frictional force of 4 Kgf and adhesion force of 0.38 nN were measured in an alumina slurry containing citric acid. However, frictional ͑6 Kgf͒doi:10.1149/1.2393051 fatcat:762nbkaiqbempntzrlxfistahy