Prevalence of Genotypic Resistance to Antiretroviral Drugs in Treatment-Naive Youths Infected with Diverse HIV Type 1 Subtypes and Recombinant Forms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity may have an impact on both vaccine efficacy and drug resistance, it is important to have knowledge of circulating genetic variants. With widespread use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in Africa, one of the major potential challenges is the risk of emergence of ARV drugresistant HIV strains. This study aimed to determine the circulating HIV subtypes and recombinant forms, as well as the prevalence of ARV drug resistance mutations, among 75
... among 75 treatment-naive HIV-infected youths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Gag (n ¼ 48), partial pol (n ¼ 44), and partial env (n ¼ 35) sequencing was performed; all three regions were sequenced in 26 samples. Evidence of infection with recombinant viruses was found in 12 (46%) participants; AC recombinants were the most commonly detected and they were identified in six (23%) participants. Of individuals infected with nonrecombinant strains, subtype A was most commonly detected in seven (27%) participants, followed by subtype C detected in six (23%) participants and subtype D detected in one (4%) participant. Among the pol sequences from 44 individuals, three (7%) had resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors and four (9%) had nonnucleoside RT inhibitor resistance mutations. Of these, three (7%) individuals were infected with viruses with cross-resistance mutations to both classes of RT inhibitors. These resistant mutations were all associated with drugs currently used in first-line therapy and in the prevention of vertical transmission. This high prevalence of resistance mutations is of considerable concern in apparently drug-naive populations as it may result in treatment failure and the spread of ARV-resistant strains.