Characteristics and source Analysis of trace Elements in PM2.5 in the Urban Atmosphere of Wuhan in Spring
Aerosol and Air Quality Research
The concentrations of PM 2.5 and trace elements with hourly resolution were measured during May 2014 in urban residential area of Wuhan, the biggest city in central China. During the period of measurement, the average temperature was approximate 25°C without domestic heating and cooling. The average concentration of PM 2.5 was 95.53 µg m -3 , which was higher than the limit of Ambient Air Quality Standard of China GB3095-2012 (75 µg m -3 , Level 2). A sand storm original from Northwestern China
... Northwestern China was also recorded. Concentrations of major trace elements (K, Tl) were comparable to previous studies, except for Ba and Ca with more than doubled concentrations (103 ng m -3 , 1,792.49 ng m -3 ) due to the storm. Enrichment Factor (EF) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) were employed to characterize the emission sources. The computation of EF showed that Zincs was highly enriched. Four sources, biomass burning (63.2%) might mainly related to power plants using biowaste burning and bio-related cooking activities, metallurgical and steel industries (14%), dust crustal (12.5%) and dust associated with vehicular traffic (10.4%), were identified in decreasing order of average percentage contribution to the PM 2.5 mass with the aid of trace elements. The orientations of emission sources were also addressed.