A Large Lobster

F. C. Waite
1896 Science  
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more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. 230 SCIENCE. SCIENCE. gheny from the north were covered by the Kansan advance and filled with its d6bris, They were afterwards more or less excavated and filled with later modified Wisconsin material; but immediately and at a moderate interval in the past, as is shown by two facts: the state of the crystallines in the Kansan drift, and the condition of the river gorges. The writer, several years ago (Am. Jour. Sci.), made the statement that the majority of glacial students seemed to have failed to consider the state of the surface immediately before the first glacial advance. He, thereupon, stated that all portions of surface outcrops too hard to be ground into flour would form a rusty gravel, with the rustiness due to previous weathering, and not to lapse of time since deposition. This is fully proved in the Kansan drift in western Pennsylvania, where red granite cobbles have been found on top of the hills east of the Allegheny river, and from four to five hundred feet above it, and these have been glaciated on one or two sides, where the smoothed surface acquires the aspect of 'rusty gravel,' while on other sides the old surface weathering remains undisturbed to such an extent that the rock has lost entirely its black bisilicates, is completely kaolinized and is pulverulent. One side is scraped down to the hard and rusty interior, and the other remains as it lay on the surface when picked up by the ice. In the same way local Pocono and Carbonic sandstones will show a hard glaciated surface and a pulverulent angular surface in the same fragment and in hundreds of instances. These lie in red clay on local white sandstone. With these ancient relics are sparingly mixed river-rolled sandstones and shales as highly polished and as hard as any in the Wisconsin deposits. These are found under conditions which exclude their being residual from local weathered conglomerates, and, as in eastern Pennsylvania, they bear witness to the close association of Kansan and Wisconsin formations. The best proof, however, lies in the state of the river bottoms. My assistant, Mr. Joseph Barrell, has discovered and studied the abandoned channel, not hitherto noted, of Oil Creek below Petroleum Centre, and will discuss it fully later. I wish to call attention to the im-Speaking of Schiaparelli's canals on Mars, Mr. Lowell is reported to have said in his lec-AUGUST 21, 1896,] AUGUST 21, 1896,]
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