Revegetation of Abandoned Mine Lands in Pennsylvania with Containerized Seedlings and Soil Amendments
Journal American Society of Mining and Reclamation
In 1977, a study was initiated in central Pennsylvania on the feasibility of revegetating barren abandoned mine lands with containerized red pine (Pinus resinosa) seedlings in combination with various soil amendments and herbaceous seed mixes. The sites selected had low nutrient availability, high acidity (pH 3.0 to 3.3), and high exchangeable Al. Vegetation was lacking even though tree seedlings had been planted following completion of mining in 1968-69. Variables tested were location (3
... , soil amendment (none, lime, lime+ fertilizer, lime +fertilizer+ mulch), seeding mix (none, deertongue grass+ birdsfoot trefoil, KY-31 tall fescue + birdsfoot trefoil), and seedling type (2 + O bare-root seedlings, Japanese paperpot seedlings). There were 144 plots with 20 trees per plot. In 1989, 12 growing seasons following planting, over-all survival was 71.5%. The only significant differences in survival involved seedling type; bare-root seedlings had significantly higher survival than Japanese paperpot seedlings at one location (Renovo), but not at the other two. There were significant differences in tree height among amendments, with mean heights of 3.0, 3.7, 4.4, and 4.4 m for no amendment, lime, lime+ fertilizer, and lime+ fertilizer+ mulch, respectively. No other variables and no interactions were significant with respect to tree height. Supplemental studies in subsequent years showed that: (1) other types of containers had survival and height growth rates similar to those of the bare-root and Japanese paperpots in the main study; and (2) survival was high after 10 years for all plantings done during three consecutive years.