Modern views on amlodipine and new S-amlodipine medications

M. V. Leonova
The review presents the latest evidence on the calcium antagonist amlodipine, summarizing its mechanisms of action, its pleiotropic, endothelial function-related effects, and its anti-atherogenic activity. Amlodipine suppresses the proliferation of vascular smooth myocytes and extracellular matrix and improves endothelial vasodilatation, despite the absence of L-type calcium channels in these cells. This mechanism is related to an increase in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) release. The results
more » ... experimental studies on the role of S and R amlodipine isomers in its hemodynamic and pleiotropic activity are presented. While S-amlodipine is a pharmacologically active blocker of L-type calcium channels, R-amlodipine increases endothelial NO release. New medications have been developed, based on S-amlodipine. It has been shown that S-amlodipine 5 mg/d is bioequivalent to amlodipine 10 mg/d. The pharmacodynamics analysis demonstrated that S-amlodipine 5 mg/d and amlodipine 10 mg/d did not differ significantly in terms of mean levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, or mean heart rate. S-amlodipine was better tolerated and characterised by a lower incidence of peripheral edema than amlodipine. However, the effects of S-amlodipine on hard end-points should be investigated in the long-term prospective studies.
doi:10.15829/1728-8800-2011-4-117-120 fatcat:emjrr7zf5zhfvkjfnorfv6wb3e