Epidemiological Trends of Five Common Diarrhea-Associated Enteric Viruses Pre- and Post-Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Coastal Kenya

Arnold W. Lambisia, Sylvia Onchaga, Nickson Murunga, Clement S. Lewa, Steven Ger Nyanjom, Charles N. Agoti
2020 Pathogens  
Using real-time RT-PCR, we screened stool samples from children aged <5 years presenting with diarrhea and admitted to Kilifi County Hospital, coastal Kenya, pre- (2003 and 2013) and post-rotavirus vaccine introduction (2016 and 2019) for five viruses, namely rotavirus group A (RVA), norovirus GII, adenovirus, astrovirus and sapovirus. Of the 984 samples analyzed, at least one virus was detected in 401 (40.8%) patients. Post rotavirus vaccine introduction, the prevalence of RVA decreased (23.3%
more » ... VA decreased (23.3% vs. 13.8%, p < 0.001) while that of norovirus GII increased (6.6% vs. 10.9%, p = 0.023). The prevalence of adenovirus, astrovirus and sapovirus remained statistically unchanged between the two periods: 9.9% vs. 14.2%, 2.4% vs. 3.2 %, 4.6% vs. 2.6%, (p = 0.053, 0.585 and 0.133), respectively. The median age of diarrhea cases was higher post vaccine introduction (12.5 months, interquartile range (IQR): 7.9–21 vs. 11.2 months pre-introduction, IQR: 6.8–16.5, p < 0.001). In this setting, RVA and adenovirus cases peaked in the dry months while norovirus GII and sapovirus peaked in the rainy season. Astrovirus did not display clear seasonality. In conclusion, following rotavirus vaccine introduction, we found a significant reduction in the prevalence of RVA in coastal Kenya but an increase in norovirus GII prevalence in hospitalized children.
doi:10.3390/pathogens9080660 pmid:32824245 fatcat:kosn6mowinh5vbwhou2x3ualry