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The article defines the role of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in neurosurgery, provides a brief historical background, as well as describes the main methods of IONM — somatosensory and motor evoked potentials. The authors describe electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures under general anaesthesia and in the conscious state. IONM is an integral part of neurosurgery, with its importance growing in orthopaedics and cavity surgery, where theredoi:10.25207/1608-6228-2019-26-5-105-115 fatcat:dlwbih7yqzehxkyzk4ecgf5kwa